The TRAPPIST-1 system discovered in 2015 and its seven Earth-sized planets have redirected most of the exoplanet searches to the M-dwarf system – and taken for granted. According to Kepler data, the researchers estimate that M-dwarfs (the most common type of star) has about 10 billion planet-sized planets in the Milky Way. However, one problem with finding exoplanets is the issue of habitability. Except for other standards, the existence of the atmosphere is vital to life because we know its existence.
A direct way to measure the habitability of a potential exoplanet is to estimate the ferocity of the stellar, stellar wind and then determine how close the surrounding planet can keep its atmosphere against the wind. This is what the author of a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences did.
Adopted alphabet flakes using a sophisticated computer model to imitate Solar Crown – adapted to the Solar System – the researchers calculated the airborne air in the TRAPPIST-1 system. Considering the relatively small atmospheric wastage, the outer planet of the system, TRAPPIST-1h, may have the most stable atmosphere in any of its brothers. In planets living in the TRAPPIST-1 habitable area (e, f, and g), g proved to be the most likely to maintain its atmosphere for a long time. These conclusions are based on various factors, some of which include the temperature and flare of the primary star.
Because TRAPPIST-1 is a more ancient star than our Sun (7.6 billion years instead of 4.5 billion years), the former system is quite hot. “Until a star runs out of fuel, the star will actually heat up over time (rather than colder),” said Manasvi Lingam, a postdoctoral researcher at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Explain. “Therefore, TRAPPIST-1 will not cool down because it has not run out of fuel – it will happen after nearly 12 trillion years (i.e., about 1000 times longer than the total life of the sun).”
According to this study, the Earth’s magnetic field can protect us from the sun flare, and the situation around TRAPPIST-1 is not so good. In a small system like TRAPPIST-1, it’s no surprise that the flares are uninterrupted – the planet can hardly protect itself.
“The theoretical models show that the magnetic fields of planets do not completely protect them with the harmful effects of stellar flares unless the [magnetic power] of [these planets] is not hundreds of times stronger than the power of the Earth,” Dr. Linnam.
The study also showed that TRAPPIST-1b – the innermost TRAPPIST planet – may magnetically interact with its main star, which is due to the large distance of the planet that our planet has not experienced.
In addition to having the ability to start/modify a stellar generator, magnetic interactions can theoretically result in super flames. These extremely powerful star explosions can be 10,000 times stronger than solar flares. “However, there is little evidence of observation, but it is possible that TRAPPIST-1 represents an excellent ‘laboratory’ that can be tested in more detail with future telescopes,” Lingam said.
While all of these factors are at odds with the habitable potential of the TRAPPIST planet, the ionospheric profile shows that below 125 mph (200 km), the planet’s atmosphere is unaffected by stellar winds. The upper layer acts as a buffer so that the surface is substantially free of contamination.
Although this is good news, we must cover all the basics. If the stellar wind blows away the atmosphere of the planet, can they resurrect?
It turns out that they can. All they need is a few hundred volcanoes and geysers, all of which want to explode. These volcanic eruptions can blast gas back into the atmosphere and replenish it. Although it has happened several times in the history of the earth, we have not heard of the TRAPPIST system.
“Unfortunately, there is not much history of degassing on Earth and Mars, let alone exoplanets. This is an important issue that remains unresolved,” Lingam said.
Regarding the life potential in the TRAPPIST system, most people tend to exclude planets b, c and possibly d (too close to their main star) and h (too far). This leaves only e, f, and g in the habitable area. In addition to the hot temperatures, constant flares, and arbitrary generator changes, the TRAPPIST planet clearly has a fierce battle.